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The word “Hacker” most of the time is misunderstood by some people.
Hacker is a neutral adjetive used to describe to somebody that knows how to use a computer as a weapon to destroy or defend, in another way, is like water… we can can talk about “poisoned water” or “holy water”.
There are three different types of hackers:
- Black Hat: These are the bad guys that everyone knows, their main motivation is to steal money, personal or corporative information to sell it or just hijack your identity to earn something with it, they also like to call the attention making defacing web sites putting their names, some of them hack banks, other prefer to hack your bank account because it´s easier and finally hack governments is also quite interesting for them.
- White Hat: These are the hackers that call themselves “Ethical Hacker” and basically they have the same power that a Black Hat but they use it to do something good, as find vulnerabilities in a application, web site or your bank to fix it to cover that hole and don´t let it open for a bad guy. A normal work of a White Hat is make Pentests (Penetrations Test (of Informatic Systems)) that means that they try to hack something as a normal black hat around the world to get into the system and them they fix that bug. They also are in CERT (Computer Emergency Response Team) a division that big companies have to generate a fast response is case of a imminent cyber attack.
- Grey Hat: This is the one that doesn’t if is a boy or a girl, is the one that time to time is good and some times is bad… is the young padawan that´s between the light and dark side.
All of these three kind of hackers always use one of these methodologies to earn access and reach the goal. The methods are:
- Black Box: Is when the hacker has just a grain of sand of the mountain of the information about his goal, it means, just a name, number or link but never is some much information about “the victim” and whats beyond of it. When the hacker is on this stage he will start the process step by step… footprinting, enumeration of actives, scanning and so on (we will talk about it later).
- White Box: This is the methodology used when the “Ethical Hacker” or Pentester has access to the goal and can go in the infrastructure, it means, now his work is to thinks as a employer inside of the company that wants to steal or corrupt the company from inside, also from inside is possible to apply scans to look for outer vulnerabilities.